Annular Pressures

Unless designed for these anticipated events, changes in temperature and pressure, mechanical shocks during drilling and completion can all create repetitive loading that can lead to stress failure of the cement sheath, which in turn can result in annular pressure buildup (also known as sustained casing pressure). Studying and testing the mechanical behavior of the cement (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, tensile strength, onset of static gel strength, etc.) under the defined wellbore conditions can significantly increase the probability of designing a zonal isolation solution that withstands the demands of completion and production. 

Additionally, spacer systems can be designed to help mitigate risk.  These systems can involve hollow ceramic or glass spheres that collapse to help prevent pressure build up from expansion.  Or, these systems can be designed for compression with a process involving nitrification of the spacer during placement. 

Annular Pressures - Challenges

Annular Pressure Challenges If Unaddressed
Avoid fluid(s) or gas(es) trapped behind the casing without accessible bleed points.

Casing pressure (potentially leading to casing failure) due to thermal expansion of trapped fluids heated from the higher temperatures of produced fluids.

Avoid damage due to trapped annuli when casing is cemented, yet top of cement resides in previous casing.

Casing damage and the potential for lost production or even loss of the well if the casing damage is severe.

Successfully maintain zonal isolation throughout the cumulative stresses sustained during completion, production, shut-in, and bringing back onto production.

Damaged cement sheath integrity requiring release of the annular pressure (bleed off), well remediation, or abandonment.

Prevent flow paths from forming in the cement sheath due to formation fluids or gases percolating into the slurry during transition from liquid to solid state, particularly at the point when hydrostatic pressure is no longer transferred to the formation.

May require a range of responses from remediation to well abandonment.

Solutions for Annular Pressures

Cement Systems

WellLock® Resin
WellLock® resin can act as an annular barricade against water and gas leaks.
iCem® Service
Runs various simulations according to specific wellbore architecture design data provided by the operator. Based on computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis, the simulations help enable the evaluation and optimization of cement designs to specifically address the operational and long-term parameters of individual wells.
ZoneSeal® Isolation Process
A fully engineered zonal isolation process with automated controls to deliver the benefits of light-weight (foam) cement during placement and for the life of the well.
Latex 3000™ Cement Additive
A liquid additive designed to lower equivalent circulating density (ECD) and to impart excellent fluid-loss control, high-temperature suspension properties, and acid resistance to cement slurries.
WellLife® Service
Models the integrity of the cement sheath and the risk of its failure as it is subjected to different well operations.
WellLife® 734 Additive
Can be used to enhance the tensile strength of set cement and can help to mitigate any undesirable effects of shrinkage that may occur during cement slurry hydration in temperatures up to 600°F (316°C).

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Summary Summary ZoneSeal Light Foam Cement System-H07083 (A4) Sign in required
ZoneSeal® Light cement system is a system for performing foam cementing jobs when the calculated nitrogen volume is limited. Instead of using liquid nitrogen and a nitrogen converter, gasous nitrogen is used. The ZoneSeal Light system is a fully integrated and automated system that helps ensure that the foaming process is controlled.
Summary Summary ZoneSeal Isolation Process and Foam Systems
The ZoneSeal Isolation Process helps ensure a stable, foamed slurry. The process includes a fully integrated automated system that adjusts nitrogen content to maintain constant density by accounting for increasing hydrostatic pressure with depth.
Summary Summary Latex 3000 Addtive_Deepwater Data Sheet
Latex 3000™ cement additive is a liquid additive designed to lower equivalent circulating density (ECD) and impart excellent fluid-loss control, high-temperature suspension properties, and acid resistance to cement slurries.
Summary Summary The Family of WellLife Additives
WellLife® additives are used to modify the set-cement sheath’s mechanical properties with the goal of making it less brittle, more resilient and more elastic than conventional cement. Increasing the elasticity and resilience of the set cement sheath with the use of an additive in the WellLife family of additives helps eliminate or at least minimize damage caused by stresses induced during well activities.
Summary Summary Fresh Approach Pays Off -- Innovation of WellLock resin system
This article originally ran in the "Innovators" section of the March 2015 issue of Canada's "New Technology" Magazine. It features the development work toward what became WellLock resin by Dr. P. Jones.
Summary Summary Rigless Micro-channel Remedation Using WellLock Resin
A customer in New South Wales, Australia had an onshore coal seam gas well that had undergone an unsatisfactory plug-to-abandon process by a third-party cementing services company. WellLock resin successfully sealed a very narrow micro-channel securing the well for permanent abandonment.
Summary Summary ZoneSeal® Injection-Pump Skid Cementing Services
The pump system used in the ZoneSeal process has been cementing upgraded. The upgraded ZoneSeal injection pump skid is a compact, portable, automated pumping system used primarily with the cementing trailer and nitrogen unit for the ZoneSeal process.
Summary Summary iCem Service - Increasing the Probability of Wellbore Integrity
iCem Service enables operators to evaluate critical variables before the cementing operation. iCem Service is the most robust cementing design tool in the industry and it helps to dramatically increase the probability of wellbore integrity.
Summary Summary WellLock® Resin
WellLock® resin can act as an annular barricade against water and gas leaks.
Summary Summary Annular Pressures
Pressure behind casing caused by expansion of fluid/gas due to thermal expansion from warmer wellbore or production fluids or due to fluid/gas migration higher in the annulus from higher-pressure zones below.
Summary Summary iCem® Service
Runs various simulations according to specific wellbore architecture design data provided by the operator. Based on computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis, the simulations help enable the evaluation and optimization of cement designs to specifically address the operational and long-term parameters of individual wells.
Summary Summary ZoneSeal® Isolation Process
A fully engineered zonal isolation process with automated controls to deliver the benefits of light-weight (foam) cement during placement and for the life of the well.
Summary Summary Latex 3000™ Cement Additive
A liquid additive designed to lower equivalent circulating density (ECD) and to impart excellent fluid-loss control, high-temperature suspension properties, and acid resistance to cement slurries.
Summary Summary WellLife® Service
Models the integrity of the cement sheath and the risk of its failure as it is subjected to different well operations.
Summary Summary WellLife® 734 Additive
Can be used to enhance the tensile strength of set cement and can help to mitigate any undesirable effects of shrinkage that may occur during cement slurry hydration in temperatures up to 600°F (316°C).
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iCem® Service
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