Pen-88 HT™ Surfactant
Pen-88 HT™ surfactant is a high-temperature surfactant that forms a microemulsion, a stable dispersion that will not separate into mutually insoluble phases, when added to an acid or non-acid fluid. As a microemulsion additive, Pen-88 HT surfactant enables aqueous stimulation fluids, such as acids, to penetrate the formation by increasing the formation’s relative permeability.
Pen-88 HT surfactant forms a microemulsion of dispersed spherical droplets less than 0.14 μm, creating a translucent solution. The maximum temperature recommended for Pen-88 HT applications is 325°F (163°C). It is used at concentrations between 1 and 5 gal/Mgal of inhibited acid; a concentration of 2 gal/Mgal is most common when it is being used as a penetrating aid. Pen-88 HT surfactant will water-wet both sand and limestone.
Pen-88 HT surfactant can be used with or without conventional nonemulsifiers like LoSurf-259™ nonionic non-emulsifers, LoSurf-300™ nonionic surfactant, and LoSurf-357™ nonionic surfactant and can be used in the following applications:
- As a penetrating aid for HCl and organic acids in systems up to 325°F (163°C).
- In breakdown acid before a fracture-acidizing treatment or a hydraulic fracturing treatment (Pen-88 HT surfactant can also be used in the treatment fluids, although a fluid-loss additive may be required.)
- As a treatment to increase near-wellbore permeability in wells damaged by acid-soluble mineral scales.
- As a mud-penetrating agent for both oil and water-based mud systems.