When coal, oil and gas are burned, they all produce carbon dioxide as a common byproduct. Numerous studies show carbon dioxide to be the major human-related source of greenhouse gases. And the world is aggressively looking for practical ways to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions.
Why is CCS Important?
CCS is considered one option to help lessen or reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which are widely reported to impact global climate changes. The impact of such global climate change could range from more frequent heat waves to droughts and severe storms, a rise in sea level and other significant changes.
CO2 also has its practical uses, including use as a byproduct to improve production of oil and gas in enhanced oil recovery operations.
CO2, unlike other materials, does not degrade over time. Therefore, removing it from the atmosphere and then ensuring that its below-ground storage is safe and secure for many decades to come is critical.
As you can see below, CO2 storage at the power station is pumped down a well bore into a saline reservoir. The well bore itself is designed to discourage any CO2 loss, as is the capping mechanism that, in effect, locks away (sequesters) the CO2 for hundreds of years.
Source: World Resources Institute brief of Opportunities and
Challenges for Carbon Capture and Sequestration