WellLock® Resin

WellLock Resin

WellLock® resin is designed to help provide wellbore integrity, thus contributing to environmental sustainability and social responsibility. It can act as an annular barricade against water and gas leaks. 

Annular flow behind casing and liners (sustained casing pressure) can be experienced anywhere in the world. Experts agree that the cause of this is very complex and is likely to occur as hydrostatic pressure is no longer transferred from the slurry column to the formation during the initial hydration or transition period to a set cement sheath; or due to water or gas flow through microannuli that may form over time if the cement sheath has not been designed with mechanical properties required to withstand events during the life of the well.

The properties of WellLock resin such as density, elasticity, and mechanical strength can be tailored to meet a variety of wellbore challenges.  Applications include situations where water or gas leaks need to be prevented or remediated:

  • Primary zonal isolation
  • Secondary annular barrier
  • Remediation for sustained casing pressure
  • Chemical disposal wells
  • Casing leaks

WellLock resin is not a cement system.  On the contrary, the Poisson’s ratio of WellLock resin is closer to that of rubber, whereas cement is closer to that of glass.  In other words, cement is inherently stiff and this resin is inherently flexible. 

Transition of WellLock resin from a liquid to a solid is different than that of cement.  The transition involves formation of covalent bonds via cross-linking reaction that initially builds viscosity, and the resin continues to transmit hydrostatic pressure to the formation.  Importantly, at the cross-over point a non-porous three-dimensional network begins to form,  the resin continues to transmit hydrostatic pressure to the formation until an impermeable barrier of cured resin forms.  Both the cross-linked molecules and continuous transfer of hydrostatic pressure throughout the set time create a resistance to liquid or gas channeling. 

This resin is resistant to acid, base, salts and hydrocarbons.  The service temperature range of WellLock resin is 60°F-280°F.

WellLock® Resin

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Summary Rigless Micro-channel Remedation Using WellLock Resin Sep 2014
Summary Permanent Plug Back - Setting a Plug through the BHA - New Zealand Offshore Aug 2014
Summary WellLock Resin provides well integrity to withstand forty-two fracturings stages Aug 2014
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WellLock Resins

Shale/Tight Gas:

Increase Reservoir Drainage VolumeFor enhanced wellbore integrity assurance, WellLock resin delivers a casing-to-casing secondary barrier, a chemical packer, if you will. For wells in gas plays, it can be placed between surface casing and intermediate casing and/or intermediate casing and the production casing to provide a casing-to-casing seal. 

The elasticity of this secondary barrier is designed to withstand the pressure fluctuations and casing expansion/contraction of temperature fluctuations throughout the life of the well. Pumped ahead of cement as a fluid stage in a primary cementing operation, this resin leaves a film that increases cement casing bond properties six-fold.  And, because the mechanical function of WellLock resin in this application is essentially that of an annular packer, operational savings is realized by avoiding rig-time requirements for setting the packer.

Do you need a resin to celebrate?  Why not ask us to evaluate a job for you using WellLock resin.

WellLock Resin - Job Evaluation Form
Deepwater:

Achieve Effective Fracture System VolumeThe regulatory standards for deep water well design requirements have tightened. The use of additional annular barriers is among the new offshore drilling rules. Wellbore architecture integrity is paramount. WellLock resin can provide a resilient, gas-tight seal above the hydraulic seal of the stabilizing cement column. And, when pumped ahead of the cement, the resin film left behind can increase the shear bond strength of cement by as much as 600%. Certain properties of WellLock resin help address offshore issues. For instance, it is chemically resistant to corrosive elements such as acid, salt and C02; and, it withstands contamination, overcoming inefficient mud displacement to achieve a set state with high bond strength. It can deliver a high-pressure seal of 1,000 psi per foot. The density, setting time, and elasticity can all be varied according to the requirements of each individual well.

One of the challenges in deep water is the narrow window between pore pressure and fracture gradient. Even something as fundamental as a liner hanger can reduce the bypass area enough to induce higher friction pressures. In such conditions, the goal is to avoid fluid-induced fractures and lost circulation; either of which can create non-productive time, increase cost of operations, and compromise wellbore integrity. As a fluid stage in primary cementing operations, WellLock resin helps manage to a lower ECD (equivalent circulating density) while helping maintain the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column.

Do you need a resin to celebrate? Why not ask us to evaluate a job for you using WellLock resin.

WellLock Resin - Job Evaluation Form
Mature Fields

Completion Operations EfficiencyDevelopment and production in mature fields can involve drilling through depleted zones, efficiently addressing unwanted annular flow, and well abandonment.  WellLock resin provides unique properties to help address these issues.

The low viscosity of this resin helps manage to lower equivalent circulating densities (ECD).  Thus, across depleted zones it is suitable for use as a fluid stage during primary cementing. 

If faced with issues such as water break through, annular gas migration, micro-annuli, sustained casing pressure, tight casing leaks, and gravel pack repair, this resin is well suited for remediation. Once an injection rate is established, WellLock resin can be bullheaded down the annulus for a squeeze operation.  Since neat WellLock resin has the yield point of water, it is less prone to bridging off than conventional cement and is able to penetrate small casing leaks, micro-annuli, or the permeability of a gravel pack.  Unlike particle-laden cement, there is no prior clean-up required, so the time and cost of an acid treatment is avoided.   

Lastly, WellLock resin is an excellent choice for plug and abandonment.  Most wells contain some fluids when plugging needs to take place.  Conventionally care should be taken to avoid contamination or channeling of the plug.  However, WellLock™ resin has been observed to form a competent material with high compressive strength with up to 30% contamination.  And, it has been designed to have low sensitivity to water and water-based fluid. Regarding chemical disposal wells, this resin is chemically inert and resistant to acid, base, and hydrocarbons.

Do you need a resin to celebrate?  Why not ask us to evaluate a job for you using WellLock resin.

WellLock Resin - Job Evaluation Form

Laboratory Results

Accelerator Influence

Accelerator Influence

The thickening time of WellLock resin can be effectively adjusted by changing the concentration of accelerator.  Lower accelerator concentrations lead to longer thickening times.  Higher accelerator concentrations lower thickening times but increase the rate of compressive strength development.

Contamination

Contamination

WellLock resin contaminated with drilling mud exhibit similar rheological behavior as those with cement, but mixtures containing up to 20% drilling mud still develop significant strength.

Cross-link Reaction

Cross-Link Reaction

WellLock resin begins as a mixture of multi-functional monomers.  Via cross-linking a three dimensional covalently bonded polymer network is formed.

Elasticity/Compressive Strength

Elasticity/Compressive Strength

At a compressive strength of 12,500 psi, WellLock resin was reduced to 79% of its original height (recorded strain: 21%).  The strain that the resin withstood was over 100 times that of conventional cement. The compressive strength of WellLock resin was measured at 162°F (72°C).

Rheology

Rheology - Figure 1

Unlike cements which exhibit Bingham plastic rheological behavior, WellLock resin systems exhibit Newtonian rheological behavior and have little or no yield stress, allowing them to flow under extremely low forces.
 

Rheology - Figure 2

The data presented in the accompanying chart was obtained on a FANN® 35 rheometer using a FYSA attachment.

Shear Bond Influence

Shear Bond Influence

The influence of WellLock resin on the shear bond of a cement system was determined by coating the interior of a shear bond mold with resin then adding cement to the mold.  It was found that a thin layer of resin between cement and the mold increased the shear bond six times.

Hydraulic Shear Bond

Hydraulic Shear Bond

Approximately one foot of WellLock resin was cast into an annulus and allowed to cure.  Water was used to generate a 1,000 psi pressure differential across the sealant.  No leakage or break through of water was observed.

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